Shenzhen Introduction
Geographic Location
Shenzhen is a coastal city in South China, adjoining Hong Kong. Its longitude lies between 113.43 and 114.38 degrees east, and its latitude between 22.24 and 22.52 degrees north. Sitting south of the Tropic of Cancer, it is in southern Guangdong Province. Demarcated from Hong Kong by the Shenzhen River in the south, it is bordered by Dongguan and Huizhou in the north, Daya Bay and Dapeng Bay in the east and the Lingding Sea and the mouth of the Pearl River in the west.
Natural Resources
The total area of Shenzhen is 1,997.47 square kilometers. Shenzhen has 310 rivers and streams associated with the nine hydrographic systems and each with more than one square kilometer of drainage area. Shenzhen has a vast sea area of 1,145 square kilometers and boasts 260 kilometers of coastline. The city also has rich natural attractions, including the popular beaches such as Dameisha, Xiaomeisha, Xichong and Judiaosha, and nature reserves like Dapeng Pennisula National Geopark, Mangrove Nature Reserve, Wutong Mountain and Inner Lingding Island.
Shenzhen has a subtropical monsoon climate. Its weather is generally temperate to mild, with plenty of rain and sunshine. The annual average temperature is 23 degrees Celsius. The average annual rainfall totals 1,935.8 millimeters and the average yearly number of hours of sunshine is 1,837.6.
The earliest-known records bearing the name Shenzhen date from 1410, during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Shenzhen became a township at the beginning of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Local people called the drains in paddy fields“zhen”or “chong.”Shenzhen literally means “deep drains”because the area used to be crisscrossed by rivers and streams. Shenzhen is also known as the “Roc City”because maps of the city’s outline resemble a flying roc with its wings spread.The city of Shenzhen was established in 1979. In August the following year, the country’s first special economic zone was established here.Human activity in the area dates back more than 6,700 years. The area was founded as a county 1,700 years ago and is home to 600-year-old cultural relics such as Nantou Ancient City and Dapeng Fortress. The Hakka people migrated to the area from central China about 300 years ago.
Administrative Divisions 
Shenzhen is a sub-provincial city. It has direct jurisdiction over nine districts and one new area: Futian, Luohu, Yantian, Nanshan, Bao’an, Longgang, Longhua, Pingshan and Guangming districts, and Dapeng New Area. The Central Government expanded the special economic zone to cover the whole city on July 1, 2010. Shenzhen Shenshan Special Cooperation Zone was officially inaugurated on Dec. 16, 2018.

Shenzhen's population increased dramatically after the city was established. By the end of 2019, its permanent resident population reached 13.4388 million, up 412,200 from the end of the previous year. Among the permanent residents, 4.9478 million are with Shenzhen hukou, accounting for 36.8 percent of the total permanent resident population, up 8.8 percent from the previous year. A city of migrants, Shenzhen is open-minded, tolerant and innovative. It is an ideal place for domestic and international talent to start businesses. It has been voted as China’s Most Dynamic City, City Most Favored by Migrant Workers and City Most Favored by Domestic and Overseas Talent.
Shenzhen is the only city in Guangdong Province where Mandarin is the dominant language, because of its huge population of migrants from all over China. Many public service employees, professionals and businesspeople speak English too. Most of the young people speak English and Cantonese. The Shenzhen Speaks Foreign Languages campaign is held across the city to encourage more residents and government employees to learn to speak foreign languages.
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